How Well Do You Know Your Birthstone Gemology?

Birthstones and their vivid colors have long been a way to connect your birth month with rare and unique gemstones. They are a meaningful gift for mom, a friend, spouse, or family member during a special occasion. But they mean much more than that as you’ll find out below.

Whether you’re shopping for a birthstone or trying to determine the birthstone gem colors that match each month, you’ve come to the right place. We will cover the origins of these stones, how they’re typical uses, and describe each month’s birthstone. They’re great stones for rings, necklaces, earrings, bracelets, charms, and more.


The Origin of Birthstones


A birthstone is nothing but a gemstone only, which is associated with the date of one’s birth and the wearing of such birthstone is considered to bring good luck and health. Certain gemstones are believed to have Supernatural powers and their relationship with planets. Many cultures at first assigned a specific gemstone to signify birth during each sign of the zodiac but over the time this tradition has been shifted to the calendar months.

Birthstones have their roots in ancient astrology, and there have been many birthstone lists used over the years. The most common one today is based on a list first publicized by the US jewelry industry in the 1950s.

Birthstones are gems associated with the month that a person was born. To start off, here’s the list of each birthstone by month.

January Birthstone: Garnet

February Birthstone: Amethyst

March Birthstones: Aquamarine and bloodstone

April Birthstone: Diamond

May Birthstone: Emerald

June Birthstone: Pearl, Alexandrite, and Moonstone

July Birthstone: Ruby

August Birthstone: Peridot, Sardonyx, and Spinel

September Birthstone: Sapphire

October Birthstone: Tourmaline and Opal

November Birthstone: Topaz and Citrine

December Birthstone: Tanzanite, Zircon, and Turquoise


List of birthstones for each month

List of birthstones for each month


The History of Birthstones


Birthstones appear to have a biblical source, tracing back to the book of Exodus in the Bible and specifically on the breastplate of Aaron. The breastplate was inlaid with 12 gemstones that each represented the twelve tribes of Israel at the time. This specific breastplate was adorned with the following gems: emerald, sapphire, diamond, topaz, carbuncle, sardius, agate, ligure, amethyst, onyx, jasper, and beryl.

“There were twelve stones, one for each of the names of the sons of Israel, each engraved like a seal with the name of one of the twelve tribes.” (Exodus 28:17-20)

How did these breastplate gems turn into the birthstones we all know today? Stepping forward to the 1st and 5th century AD two scholars, Flavius Josephus and St. Jerome, are credited with associating the 12 breastplate gems with the 12 signs of the zodiac. Initially, the thinking was that each person would own all 12 birthstones and wear each gem on the corresponding month.

The modern variation we know today came about in the 18th century in Poland whereby Jewish gem traders marketed selling each gemstone based on a person’s birth month. In 1912 the National Association of Jewelers solidified the practice in the United States. The twelve birthstones have mostly remained the same since then, albeit with a few companies trying to pitch their gems into the mix to boost sales.


Are Birthstones Gemstones or Minerals?


Most of the birthstones listed above are gemstones that are technically classified as minerals. However, a pearl is not classified as a mineral since it is not inorganic as it grew inside a mollusk. In addition, opal in some instances can be either organic or inorganic and thus the organic version would not be considered a mineral.

What is defined as a gemstone is a more generic term used chiefly by the jewelry industry to denote a precious stone that has been cut, polished, and used in jewelry. The stone can be either made up of minerals such as diamonds or emeralds or other substances such as amber or pearls. Gems are often hard to find and hold an economic value predominantly dependent on their rarity.



Uncut and unpolished birthstone gemstones

Uncut and unpolished birthstone gemstones


Now, let’s get into each month’s birthstone so that you can learn a bit about your particular birthstone and see what it looks like up close.


The idea of birthstones has a place in many traditions, customs, and belief systems.

Birthstones are gems associated with the month that a person was born. To start off, here’s the list of each birthstone by month. The birthstones featured below are arranged by month. Click on the birthstone to learn more about your birthstone.


January Birthstone: Garnet


Garnet is officially assigned stone for this month and said to be very productive while traveling and in business. If you were born in January, then Garnet is advised you to wear. Garnet should be red-colored which comes from Indian and Madagascar mines mainly.

It is said that this stone keeps the wearer safe from harm. A garnet also signifies eternal friendship and trust. This stone has long been associated with blood purification, and it is believed to protect against food poisoning, snake bite, and hemorrhage.

Although garnet is commonly associated with the color red, these gemstones can be found in almost any color and are popular choices for the jewelry of all types. That’s excellent news if you’re in the market for this January birthstone.


January birthstone: Gemme Couture garnet earrings with diamonds and pearls

Gemme Couture garnet earrings with diamonds and pearls



February Birthstone: Amethyst


Amethyst is the birthstone for those born in the month of February. The term amethyst derives from the ancient Greek word methustos, which translates roughly to intoxicated. In ancient Greece, it was believed that if you wore an amethyst it would protect you from getting drunk.

Amethyst that comes in purple color is assigned to this month and helps in the marital relationship and give courage to the wearer. Amethyst deep color comes from Africa and some other countries.

The deep purple of an amethyst gemstone has long signified royalty and adorns many crowns and royal jewelry. It is meant to exude wealth and power with its warm and cold color. You can often find amethyst in geodes at your local rock shop.

The gemstone symbolizes peace and tranquility. This is also the 19th Anniversary Stone.


Amethyst, birthstone for February - Gemme Couture Rainbow Amethyst Bracelet

Gemme Couture Rainbow Amethyst Bracelet


March Birthstone: Aquamarine and bloodstone


Aquamarine is the birthstone for those lucky enough to be born in March. The word aquamarine is a combination of two words, aqua meaning water, and marina, meaning the sea. Therefore, the gem is named after the beautiful blue sea. Part of the history of this gem is that it was used by sailors to give them good luck on the seas and to ensure a safe voyage.

Top color of Aquamarine is called ‘Santa Maria’ color.


Bloodstone is also a very protective stone and is especially useful if you are being threatened. The blood-like appearance has made the bloodstone central to a vast quantity of lore. The Ancient Greeks called it the Sun Stone (which is its alternative name heliotrope comes from).

Additionally, this stone, which is associated with the root chakra, will assist in grounding you in the physical world, which relieves depression and anxiety and will keep you focused on the “here and now,” and the “next steps” that you need to take to solve a problem.


March birthstone: Aquamarine and bloodstone

Aquamarine and bloodstone


April Birthstone: Diamond


There are three things extraordinarily hard: steel, a diamond, and to know one’s self.” – Benjamin Franklin

You’ve without doubt heard of or even own a diamond, the birthstone for of April. Diamonds are one of the rarest gemstones in the world and certainly one of the most prized. They earn that recognition partially for how hard they are, in fact, they are 58 times harder than any other mineral on Earth. That is why you will often see diamond-coated blades and bits as they cut or grind through anything.

Diamonds are a pure carbon lattice, as shown above, and come in a range of colors from yellow to red, pink, green, and blue.

Diamonds are carbon that withstands extreme temperatures and pressures below the surface of the Earth. They are then excavated to the surface often through volcanic magma pipes called kimberlite pipes. They have been valued for thousands of years in civilizations around the world and were once thought to be lightning on Earth. Today, they’re commonly given as engagement rings.

Diamonds are the ideal gift for a loved one. They are a symbol of courage and true love. And they are 10th and 60th Anniversary Stone.


Diamond- the birthstone for April Gemme Couture jewelry with diamonds

Gemme Couture jewelry with diamonds


May Birthstone: Emerald


Emerald is the birthstone for those born in May. The word emerald is derived from the Greek word smaragdus, which translates to green. Similar to aquamarine as mentioned above, an emerald is a green variety of beryl based on the impurities found in the beryl.

Emeralds are found commonly in Brazil, Colombia, Zambia, and Afghanistan. Most emeralds are heat treated to deepen their green color as high-quality emeralds are extremely rare. Cleopatra is known to have loved emeralds and claimed ownership of every single emerald mine in Egypt during her rule.


The emerald is part of the “big three” colored gemstones in addition to ruby and sapphire. These big three gems create more economic value than all other gemstones combined. Beryl picks up its green color from trace amounts of chromium or vanadium along with trace amounts of iron to give it a bluish-green color. This stone represents rebirth and it is believed that wearer gets foresight, good fortune, and youth. Some people believe wearing an emerald brings wisdom, growth and patience. It is also prized for its ability to reveal true love. It is 20th and 35th Year Anniversary Stone.


Emerald, may birthstone Gemme Couture Emerald Diamond Earrings

Gemme Couture Emerald Diamond Earrings


June Birthstone: Pearl, Moonstone, and Alexandrite


Pearl, Moonstone, and Alexandrite are birthstones for June. Most of the people prefer pearls and moonstone to wear because alexandrite is a rather expensive gemstone.

Alexandrite is well known for displaying one of the most remarkable color changes in the gem world — green in sunlight and red in incandescent light. However, the modern June birthstone is so rare and expensive few people have seen a natural alexandrite. This variety of gem-quality chrysoberyl makes an excellent jewelry stone (if you can acquire one). This stone brings balance between your physical world and the unmanifest astral or spiritual world. unmanifest astral or spiritual world. It will unlock your crown chakra and allow you access to the healing energy and loving support of the universe.

It’s also the anniversary stone for 55 years of marriage.


Smithsonian Alexandrite, green and red in color birthstone for June

Smithsonian Alexandrite, green and red in color

Pearls are your lucky birthstone if you are born in June. The word pearl comes from the French word perle which means lead. This refers to the leg shape of a mollusk shell. Pearls have been recognized as the emblem of modesty, chastity, and purity. The regal pearl was believed to possess life-restoring powers. Myths have it that they keep your children safe while strengthening your relationships. It is also said that these little gemstones are symbolic of the wearer’s loyalty, generosity, integrity, and purity.

It’s also the anniversary stone for 3rd and 30th years of marriage.

Moonstone crystal, the dreamy, ethereal stone that channels the moon, a force that has the power to push and pull the tides of oceans and your emotions. Keep Moonstone close by and feel the glow of the moonlight infusing your chakras with its brilliant white light. If you’re facing issues of stability, whether it’s emotional or otherwise, the Moonstone crystal meaning reminds us of the night sky, and its steady and reliable cycle of darkness giving way to light. The Moonstone crystal meaning is associated with the inner goddess, a symbol of fertility and sensuality. The life-giving feminine figure is an empowering visualization that gives us the gift of increased intuition, the perfect prescription for cleansing the mind of negative emotions holding you back.

Fear? Shrug it off. Self-doubt? You got this. With the Moonstone crystal by your side, channel its healing powers with daily meditation, a practice that helps to clear the mind and center the spirit.

For an intense and healing therapeutic session with Moonstone, retreat into a sacred healing space free of clutter and distractions. Moonstone cleanses and dispels negativity from all the chakras, and provides supplemental energy and support in balancing the physical, emotional, and intellectual bodies.

It provides spiritual nourishment and sustenance to assist one through all changes. Meditate on your intention for the new moon and the next monthly phase of goals, aspirations, and dreams you have for your life. Repeat this ritual on a full moon and experience the full potential of your soul under the glow of moonlight. Moonstone is anniversary stone for the 3rd year of marriage.


Gemme Couture Tahiti and Fresh Water Pearl Bardot Bracelet with Pave Diamond Ball and Peach Moonstone Diamond Earrings birthstones for may

Gemme Couture Tahiti and Fresh Water Pearl Bardot Bracelet with Pave Diamond Ball and Peach Moonstone Diamond Earrings


July Birthstone: Ruby


Ruby is the birthstone for July and attracts both good luck and good friends. As one of the most popular traditional jewelry stones, ruby is exceptionally durable. Its colors — always red — can reach vivid levels of saturation. Fine-quality rubies are some of the most expensive gemstones.

Rubies arouse the senses, stir the imagination, and are said to guarantee health, wisdom, wealth and success in love. It is believed that Ruby helps to make the wearer wise and gives protection against all sorts of misfortunes. It actively stimulates the Base Chakra, increasing vitality and chi, the life-force energy, throughout the physical body and into the spirit.

It promotes a clear mind, increased concentration and motivation, and brings a sense of power to the wearer, a self-confidence and determination that overcomes timidity and propels one toward prosperity and achievement. Ruby initiates the sensual pleasures of life. It stirs the blood and stimulates the heart, encouraging one to enjoy being in the physical world. It increases desire and sexual energy.

Ruby is 15th and 40th Anniversary Stone.


GemmeCouture Red Velvet Ruby Diamond Bracelet

GemmeCouture Red Velvet Ruby Diamond Bracelet


August Birthstone: Peridot, Sardonyx, Spinel


Peridot is one of your birthstones if you are born in August. This gemstone has a green, vibrant glow and possibly derives its name from the Arabic word for gem. It may also derive its name from the Greek word for “giving plenty,” peridona. Peridot has its own charming sparkle and helps to get rid of negativity.

Peridot is said to host magical powers and healing properties to protect against nightmares and to bring the wearer power, influence, and a wonderful year. This gem was also worn as protection against evil spirits. Peridot is 16th Anniversary Stone.



GemmeCouture Candy in Green Tourmaline Necklace and Emerald and Peridot Rings

GemmeCouture Candy in Green Tourmaline Necklace and Emerald and Peridot Rings


Those born in August benefit from having an alternative birthstone to choose from.

Sardonyx was initially discovered in an ancient Persian city called Sardis; the region now known as Turkey. The stone has a unique composition, with layers of sard—which comes from the city name Sardis—and onyx, both varieties of the mineral chalcedony. The word Sardonyx is derived from the Greek, sard meaning “reddish-brown,” and onyx meaning “veined gem.” The best stones are found in India.

Roman soldiers wore sardonyx talismans (to guard against evil and bring good fortune) engraved with heroes such as Hercules or Mars, the god of war. They assumed that the stone would make the wearer as brave and daring as the figure carved on its face. During the Renaissance, sardonyx was believed to bring eloquence upon the wearer and was regarded with great value by public speakers and orators.

A lucky talisman for legal matters and for obtaining justice, especially over money or property. Sardonyx provides you the stabilization and strength required to have the endurance, energy, and determination to create good fortune based on genuine moral ethics.

With this grounding stone, you will be able to translate your energies into tangible results. This is a beneficial stone for builders, athletes, physical therapists, chiropractors, and massage therapists. Keep it nearby to increase business success in these occupations.



Red and black sardonyx

Red and black sardonyx



The modern birthstone list has been amended only three times in the past 106 years, so when the American Gem Trade Association (AGTA) and Jewelers of America (JA) announced in 2016 that spinel would be joining peridot as an official birthstone for August, the news surprised jewelers and gem fans alike.

Available in a rainbow of vibrant colors — but best known as a ruby doppelgänger — the spinel presents a beautiful alternative to the yellow-green peridot. Part of the stone’s intrigue is that it has been misidentified for so many years. In fact, the International Colored Gemstone Association (ICA) called spinel “the great impostor of gemstone history” because some of the world’s most famous “rubies” are actually spinels.

While spinel is best known for its ability to imitate the color of ruby, the gem also comes in soft pastel shades of pink and purple, fiery oranges, and cool hues ranging from powdery gray to intense blue. It is a durable gem with a hardness of 8.0 on the Mohs scale. By comparison, diamond rates a 10 and ruby rates a 9.

Thought to protect the wearer from harm, spinels are also believed to take away sadness, replenish one’s energy and help overcome the challenges that life brings.

Spinel is associated with energy renewal, overcoming tough circumstances, and rejuvenation. It opens all the chakras due to the broad color range and helps kundalini, energy move up the spine.


Gemme Couture spinel earrings

Gemme Couture spinel earrings


September Birthstone: Sapphire


Few gems have held our attention over millennia as well as sapphire. The pure blue colors and excellent durability of this gem-quality member of the corundum family make for an exceptional gemstone. However, not all sapphires are blue. They come in every color of the rainbow. Except for red. All red corundum gems are considered rubies. Blue sapphires are simply called sapphires. Sapphires of other colors are named yellow sapphire, pink sapphire, etc. Sapphires get their extraordinary colors from traces of iron, titanium, chromium, and other elements.

Blue Sapphire – Royal blue and Ceylon blue color of blue sapphire is considered a symbol of royalty and assigned to this month.

Sapphire protects the wearer and their loved ones from envy and harm. Ancient priests believed sapphires helped them predict the future. The gem is associated with peace and happiness.

Known as the wisdom stone, each color of Sapphire brings its own particular wisdom.  It releases mental tension, depression, unwanted thoughts, and spiritual confusion.  Sapphire restores balance within the body, aligning the physical, mental, and spiritual planes, bringing serenity and peace of mind.  It stimulates concentration, brings lightness, joy, and peace of mind.  Sapphire is also known as a stone of prosperity, attracting gifts of all kinds, and fulfilling dreams and desires.

Sapphire treats blood disorders, combatting excessive bleeding, and strengthening the walls of the veins.  It is used for cellular disorders, regulates the glands and calms overactive body systems. It is 5th and 45th Anniversary Stone.


Gemme Couture Pink Sapphire Diamond Ring

Gemme Couture Pink Sapphire Diamond Ring


October Birthstone: Tourmaline and Opal


Opal and Pink Tourmaline are symbols of hope and art and said to be the birthstone for October. Opal protects you from the evil eye and keeps your surroundings clear. Tourmaline is one of our most popular gems. No other mineral comes in more colors, and some of the combinations are in a class by themselves.

Tourmaline gemstones have been appreciated and valued for centuries, even though people may not have known what they were. This is a very colorful gemstone family, members of which may have been mistaken for more valuable gemstones like rubies and emeralds. Tourmaline meaning and healing properties are near as variable as tourmaline color. However, there are a few elements that run true through all of them based on the aluminum borosilicate they all contain.

Tourmaline meaning varies slightly, depending on its color. However, the root of tourmaline meaning for all tourmaline colors is energy. Tourmaline imparts powerful healing energy and powerful protection energy.

Tourmaline spiritual healing properties are energy-based. Tourmaline clears negative energy or transforms it into good that is then used to strengthen the body and spirit.

Healing properties of tourmaline vary, depending on the gem’s color. The powers in each tourmaline color are tied to the meaning for that color. Tourmaline wands are especially useful for spiritual healing.


Gemme Couture Baroque Pearl Pink Tourmaline Necklace

Gemme Couture Baroque Pearl Pink Tourmaline Necklace


Opal has symbolized hope, innocence, and purity through the ages. It was said to have a beneficial effect on the eyesight of the wearer. It was also thought to banish evil spirits and favor children, amusements, friendships, and feelings. Every gem is unique in appearance. Opals contain fireworks of every possible color dancing inside them. Opals contain fireworks of every possible color dancing inside them. The flashes of color that make opal such an attractive stone is referred to as play of color.

Opals are in a class by themselves. As a species, opal is so unique it has its own descriptive vocabulary. More than any other gem, each opal is distinctly individual. Opals are also the most delicate gemstones commonly worn and require special care. The name opal is thought to be derived from the Sanskrit upala, meaning “precious stone,” and later the Greek derivative “Opallios,” meaning “to see a change of color.”

Among the ancients, opal was a symbol of fidelity and assurance. In more recent history, it became associated with a religious, emotional prayer. It was believed to have a stable therapeutic value for diseases of the eye, and when worn as an amulet, it would make the wearer immune from disease as well as increase the powers of the eyes and the mind. It is also the stone given to celebrate the 14th year of marriage.


Gemme Couture Welo Opal Diamond Ring

Gemme Couture Welo Opal Diamond Ring


November Birthstone: Topaz and Citrine


Both topaz and citrine are the birthstones associated with the birth month of November. Topaz is the more common gemstone associated with November and comes in a variety of yellow hues. This gem has been treasured for over 2000 years. It is filled with positive energy and has been considerably appreciated for centuries.


The name “topaz” comes from Greek and the small island called Tapazios in the Red Sea. Tapazios is now called St. John’s Island. Tapazios is now called St. John’s Island. This is because yellow gems were mined on this island. However, they were likely not topaz.

Yellow topaz and citrine are best for healing and widely used in Asian countries and strengthen mental health. This stone is a symbol of strength and power, it clears your mind and keeps your focus. It is proved that this stone brings positivity in wearer’s life.

Topaz, in particular, has been said to work with one’s creative energies. Topaz is also excellent for promoting concentration. Many believed wearing a topaz ring would keep death from coming prematurely and would control insomnia and greed.  Topaz has also been long believed to be useful for those unable to control lust. A good stone for people with sex addictions. The blue topaz is the 4th anniversary stone. The golden Imperial topaz is the 16th and 23rd anniversary stone.


Gemme Couture topaz and citrine bracelets

Gemme Couture topaz and citrine bracelets


Citrine has been popular for thousands of years and used to be revered for its rarity, though that has changed with time. The ancient Romans used it for beautiful jewelry and intaglio work. It was also very accepted for jewelry in the 19th century. During the Art Deco period, large citrines were set in many prized jewelry pieces, made for big Hollywood stars such as Greta Garbo and Joan Crawford.

Citrine is also known as the “healing quartz.” Citrine is said to promote vitality and energy to its wearer. Citrine creates wealth, abundance, and prosperity, according to the Chinese feng shui philosophy. This means November birthstones will make excellent love offerings to the specific person in your life. Citrine quartz has been worn since ancient times. Citrine was first recorded in English as early as 1385. However, since Citrine looked so much like Topaz, these two gems birthstones shared a history of being misidentified very often.

Whether shopping for the thirteenth anniversary, twenty-third anniversary or a November birthday, citrine is one of the most affordable and abundant gemstones, and this makes even elegant, big gems are priced modestly.


December Birthstone: Tanzanite, Zircon and Turquoise


Zircon Turquoise and Tanzanite are gems for good fortune. Blue colored stones are a symbol of peace, and relaxation in life, it helps in healing your tensions.

All three of these stones are a deep blue color and have their history and chemical composition.

Maybe the most interesting of the three is tanzanite, a gem you may not have heard of before. This rare gem is only found in Tanzania and was only recently discovered in 1967. Tanzanite gets its deep blue color from trace amounts of vanadium. In 2002, the American gem trade association added Tanzanite in birthstones’ list.

Tanzanite is an extraordinary gemstone for those in need of spiritual healing. It resonates or vibrates at a high rate, which makes for a quick but gentle connection with angelic realms, spirit guides, and higher consciousness. Tanzanite gemstone energy is highly protective, an aspect in keeping with tanzanite meaning that is invaluable during spiritual healing. The shifting tanzanite colors are highly conducive to raising your level of consciousness. Tanzanite properties are highly attuned to the heart, throat, brow or Third Eye and crown chakras, which supports tanzanite meaning. Tanzanite is the suggested gift for the 24th wedding anniversary.


With striking sky blue to blue-green colors, turquoise has been prized by cultures all over the world for over 5000 years. Today, the traditional December birthstone is favored by well-known modern jewelry. It is believed that wearer of this gemstone gets happiness and good fortune.

A protective stone used for thousands of years, Turquoise is the spiritual balm to a heart that’s been chapped by old emotional wounds and chronic stress. Turquoise is a purification stone.  It dispels negative energy and can be worn to protect against outside influences or pollutants in the atmosphere.

Turquoise balances and aligns all the chakras, stabilizing mood swings and instilling inner calm.  It is excellent for depression and exhaustion; it also has the power to prevent panic attacks.

Turquoise promotes self-realization and assists in creative problem-solving. It is a symbol of friendship and stimulates romantic love. It is the 11th Anniversary Stone.




Gemme Couture Turquoise Diamond Necklace and tanzanite ring

Gemme Couture Turquoise Diamond Necklace and tanzanite ring




Zircons are exceptionally brilliant gemstones; the high zircon has the highest refractive index of any natural transparent gemstone. High zircons are usually blue or colorless. Fine blue zircons are rare, but they are exceptionally appealing stones.

Zircon is a valuable gemstone that comes in many different colors and with a lot of energy benefits. It’s a stone that has been used throughout history as an excellent substitute for diamonds.  The energy of this stone helps you to maintain momentum in your life to keep learning, growing, and achieving your goals.

Zircon is said to be good for the liver and gallbladder. It’s also good for asthma, bronchitis, and allergies as well as the lungs. Beneficial for respiratory problems in general.


This stone helps you remove yourself from difficult or harmful situations to protect yourself.

Zircon activates and balances all of the chakras because it comes in all different colors.


Gemme Couture jewelry – Blue Zircon Necklace and Red-Brown Zircon with South Sea Pearls Necklace and Zircon Gemstones Tanzanite

Gemme Couture jewelry – Blue Zircon Necklace and Red-Brown Zircon with South Sea Pearls Necklace and Zircon Gemstones Tanzanite



Hopefully, you have found this guide to the birthstones for every month of the year helpful. They have long histories and have been used to signify any number of meanings for thousands of years.


It’s incredible to think of the history each one of these stones has in human’s history and how they will shape views of wealth and power for centuries to come.

Let us know in the comments below which stone you purchased and whether it was a gift for your mom, daughter, wife, grandma, or anyone else.